Author Topic: Introduction to Controlling: Ground Services  (Read 929 times)

AsharK | EAS-5500

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Introduction to Controlling: Ground Services
« on: August 26, 2018, 02:21:07 PM »

Hey Everyone! You probably know me by now but I'm AsharK over from the EasternHops Public Teamspeak ( and today I want to go over the Ground Position. This should be a pretty easy to learn position as ground is usually one of the easiest positions to control.

Now, there are two types of airports. They basically have everything in common other then a few little things. Before we get into these two types of airports, lets go over the outlines on how to say a taxi instruction.

<CALLSIGN>, Runway #, Taxi via <taxiways>

This is the easiest taxi instruction you will probably ever give. Now one thing before we break this down,  You always want to say the "Runway #" before giving the actual instructions AND you don't need to say something like "Contact tower when holding short" or blah blah blah. That's all unnecessary words being used. 

So lets break this all down. Pretend that AAL123 is at the Alpha terminal at KMDW and the active RWY is 22L. Your taxi instruction would be something like:


"Runway #" - Runway 22L

"Taxi via <taxiways>" - Taxi via Tango, Yankee

AAL123, Runway 22L, Taxi via Tango, Yankee

Now if the aircraft had to cross a runway to get to another runway, then it becomes a bit different. It really depends on how you will giving the clearance. If the RWY that the aircraft has to cross is a active RWY, then you will have to coordination with TWR and make sure you get a clearance for that aircraft to cross.

So the initial taxi instruction would use this template:

<CALLSIGN>, Runway #, Taxi via <taxiways>, hold short Runway #

N8866PW is at the Alpha Terminal and needs taxi to RWY 22R for VFR pattern work. 

"<CALLSIGN>" - N8866PW

"Runway #" - Runway 22R

"Taxi via <taxiways>" - Taxi via Tango, Papa

"hold short Runway #" - hold short Runway 22L

N8866PW, Runway 22R, Taxi via Tango, Papa, hold short Runway 22L

Now sometime while he is taxing, you want to contact TWR and ask him for permission to let N8866PW cross RWY 22L so he can get to RWY 22R.

The outline for that would be something like:

GND: Midway Tower, Midway Ground

TWR: Midway Ground, Midway Tower.

GND: N8866PW to cross Runway 22L at Papa

TWR: N8866PW cross Runway 22L, <INITIALS>


The "<INITIALS>" should be exchanged out for your Real Life Initials. So for me, it would be "Alpha, Hotel." So if the aircraft is still taxing to RWY 22L, you want to inform him before he reaches 22L so he does not have to hold short for a second. If he is already holding short Runway 22L then just inform him to cross, like this:

N8866PW, cleared to cross Runway 22L.

Around the time when the aircraft is reaching his departure RWY, you want to send him to TWR. You would usually say:

N8866PW, contact TWR on <Frequency>

but sometimes when the TWR is really busy, you want to tell the pilot to monitor TWR:

N8866PW, monitor TWR on <Frequency>

Now the only way a RWY will ever be INACTIVE is if TWR has TOLD YOU that particular RWY is inactive. So lets say that AAL123 has spawned at the South/GA Ramp at KMDW (I don't know why but ok). He needs taxi to RWY 22L.

<CALLSIGN>, Runway #, Taxi via <taxiways>, cross Runway #

"<CALLSIGN>" -  AAL123

"Runway #" - Runway 22L

"Taxi via <taxiways>" - Taxi via Yankee

"cross Runway #" - cross Runway 31L, 31C, 31R

AAL123, Runway 22L, Taxi via Yankee, cross Runway 31L, 31C, 31R

One more thing, if the aircraft has to cross a RWY then hold short of another RWY. So for example AAL123 above is going to 22L but 31C is an active RWY and 31L and 31R are inactive. Then your outline would be something like:

<CALLSIGN>, Runway #, Taxi via <taxiways>, cross Runway #, Hold Short Runway #

Example: AAL123, Runway 22L, Taxi via Yankee, cross Runway 31L, Hold Short Runway 31C

then during his taxi, you would contact TWR, get permission for him to cross 31C, then say something like:

AAL123, cross Runway 31C, 31R

That basically covers it for most airports. There is one more thing though, especially when your working at very large airports. Lets take KORD for example. It has 2 taxiways, Alpha and Bravo, they both surround the terminal area. With airports that have this type of layout where 2 taxiways are surrounding the terminal. Stuff works a little bit differently.

If you look at this image above. The KORD terminal has the inside taxiway, Alpha and the outside taxiway, Bravo. How it works is that the inside / Alpha taxiway will go clockwise and the outside / Bravo taxiway will go counter clockwise. There are many large airports with this design. I don't know for sure if the inside taxiway  always is the one that goes clockwise or if it is always named Alpha but for KORD, it's like this. So if an aircraft was near Alpha 10 and he was taxing to 4L, he would taxi via Alpha till he reaches Alpha 3 then take a left on Alpha 3 and taxi straight to 4L. If an aircraft was at Alpha 3 and he needed taxi to 28R, he would taxi via Alpha 3, Bravo, November 2, November, Yankee.

Finally, If you look at the KORD chart, you will see a bunch of taxiways named A1, A2, A3, A4, etc. Those Alpha Taxiways that are ODD should be used by aircraft leaving the terminal, departures. Those that are even should be used by arrival aircraft, entering the terminal. This is so there is not some kind of jam that would require tugs, etc, etc. A good way to remember this is the word "Outbound" which means that an aircraft would be leaving the terminal, going out. The first letter of "Outbound" is "O" and the first letter of ODD is "O" which means that you can easily remember this through the fact that they both start with O. Which would leave, Inbound taxiways to be Even. Now I don't know if this Outbound and Inbound rule works for other major airports with the same design. BUT it is a very easy way to remember and you should probably just use it all the time, if you decide to do so.

That's about it for GND services. It's a very easy position to do once you understand all this. If you guys ever see anything "wrong" that I have posted on these posts, please please give me a PM or find me on the Public Teamspeak so I can better learn myself and and fix any wrong information posted on here. Once again, thanks to all who read through all this and those that support me! Have a wonderful day everyone!
« Last Edit: September 27, 2019, 06:23:22 PM by Pizza EAS-42oo »